Awesome question! The breakdown of how much of your diet should be coming from protein and carbs really depends on your medical history, current health status, and weight goals. As you know, even though a 100 calories of a lean piece of meat (protein) and 100 calories of a piece whole grain muffin (carb) have the same amount of calories, the way they are absorbed, digested, the energy required to digest them, and hormones they trigger are vastly different. All of the things I mentioned are also weight related.
So to keep it as simple and general as possible, keep these 3 things in mind:
Try to get most of your carbs from fruits, veggies, beans, and “live” grains (http://www.foodforlife.com/)…choose them unprocessed as possible, and starchy veggies (sweet potatoes, etc.). These carbs will keep you full the longest, and have the biggest nutritional bang for their buck (vs. carbs from “light” bread, crackers, wraps, white pasta, etc.)
Whenever you eat one of these “healthy” carbs, pair it with a protein to keep your blood sugar as steady as possible
At the end of the day, the ratio of protein:carb should be about 1:1.5 or so. So, if you ate about 4 servings of protein in a day (1 serving is 3 oz of meat, or size of your palm, or 15-20 grams if you look at a label), you will have wanted to eat about 6 or so servings of healthy carbs (6 servings of carbs would be 1 apple, 1 banana, 1/2 cup brown rice (2 servings), 2 slices of sprouted bread (2 servings)